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In what products can you find vitamins?



What do we need it for?

In what product can you find it?

Recommended amount/day

Consequences of shortage

A (Retinol) 

- against infections

- for growth
- eyesight
- gum and skin health

liver, fish and

adult men need 1000 mg per day and women 800 mg.

 -reduced immune system
-dry and flaky skin
-dull hair
-reduced vision
-night blindness
B1 (Thiamine)
-carbohydrate burning
-nervous system
 pork and
grain products

adults need 1.1 mg per day.

-Weight loss
-Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (with excessive alcohol consumption)
B2 (riboflavine)
-energy management
-nervous system
dairy, meat, grain
products, vegetables,
adult men and women need 1.5 mg 1.1 mg.
-inflammation of the skin
-lower hemoglobin level (hemoglobin transports oxygen in the blood)
B3 (niacin)
-energy supply
-nervous system
-Healthy skin
fish, meat, nuts,

grain products, vegetables and fruits


adult men need
17 mg and woman
need 13 mg.

-skin and mucous membrane inflammation

B5 (pantothenic acid)
-resorption of protein, fats and carbohydrates
-energy supply
-nervous system
-formation of hormones

fish, meat, eggs, dairy products, potatoes, vegetables and


adult men and women need 5 mg.

- only occurs in severe malnutrition, which hardly occurs in the Netherlands.

 B6 (pyridoxine)
-immune system
-formation of red blood cells
-energy supply
-nervous system
fish, meat, eggs, grain products,
potatoes and legumes

adult men and women need 1.5 mg.


- infants: weight loss, vomiting and convulsions.
- adults: depression, inflammation of the tongue and skin, confusion, tiredness and nervous system disorders.

B8 (biotin)

-constructing and breakdown of carbohydrates and protein
-production of carboxylic acid
-energy supply
-nervous system
-Healthy skin and hair

eggs, milk, soy products, nuts

and peanuts


up to the age of 5 months, 4 mcg is advised. -rare effects:
-skin disorders
-tongue inflammation
-reduced appetite
-muscle ache
B11 (folic acid)

-functioning of the immune system and
nervous system
-formation of
red blood cells
-healthy growth during

 green vegetables, fruit, whole wheat products and to a lesser extent in milk and milk products.

adult men and women need 300 mg. As an exception, pregnant women require 400 mcg (4 weeks before to 8 weeks after conception). Women who want to conceive also need 400 mcg.

-abnormalities in red and white blood cells
-weight loss
-baby with a spina bifida

B12 (cobalamin)

-immune system
-formation of red blood cells
-nervous system
-energy supply
-role in the metabolism of folic acid

is only found in foods of animal origin

adults need 2.8 mcg per day.


-deficiency in folic acid
-angina pectoris
-damage nervous system
-memory problems
-loss of appetite

Beta Carotene (pro vitamine A)

-is converted into vitamin A
-immune system

leafy vegetables, cabbages, carrots, mangoes and tangerines. Beta carotene gives the orange and yellow color to fruits and vegetables

Beta carotene has no recommended daily amount. Beta-carotene is converted into vitamin A.

- reduced production of vitamin A
- vitamin A deficiency if food contains too little vitamin A

C (ascorbic acid)

-immune system
-helps in better absorption of iron from food
-blood vessels

-vegetables and fruit

adults need 70 mg per day.

- decreased immune system
- poorer wound healing
- decreased build-up of connective tissue
- scurvy in case of severe deficiency

D (calciferol of cholecalciferol)

-strong bones and teeth
-promotes the absorption of calcium and phosphorus
-immune system
-good muscle functioning  

sunlight, fatty animal products, fatty fish

children (0-4 years), women (50-70 years) and pregnant women need 10 mcg. Men and women over 70 need 20 mcg.

Those who have insufficient sunlight exposure or a dark/ toned skin need 10-20mcg.

-skeletal abnormalities in children (Rickets)
-osteomalacia (softening of bones)
-bone fractures
-muscle weakness and muscle cramps

E (tocopherol)

- production of red blood cells
- immune system
- to keep muscle tissue

vegetable oils and products such as grains, nuts, seeds, vegetables and fruit 

adult men need 11.8 mg per day and adult women 9.3 mg

-damage to the brain

K (phyloquinone)

-important role in
 in blood clotting and bone metabolism

green leafy vegetables, vegetable oils, fruit, dairy, egg, chicken, meat and bread

Babies are always given 1 mg of vitamin K after birth. Breastfed children need 150 mcg daily up to and including the third month.
Adults need 70 mcg per day.

a deficiency is rare and mainly occurs in newborn babies, in people with a severe absorption disorder and in people who have taken antibiotics for a long time.